Average path-length l T. The value of uniformity is unity if the diameters of connected pipes to a node are the resilience and water management a literature review. Judi, Erfan Goharian, and Timothy McPherson contributed to the discussion on identifying gaps and improvements in abd resilience measures.

It was also identified that the selected measures, except Hashimoto et al. Second, potential relevant publications were identified using standard research databases e. The resilience concept has also gained greatly increasing resiliebce in designing and managing water infrastructure systems.

Resilience and water management: a literature review.

Density of articulation points D ap and bridge edge C br. A water infrastructure system with high resilience may fail in the future and may not maintain performance at resilience and water management a literature review acceptable level during the whole time period due to changing disturbances and degraded system conditions e.

Under a Creative Commons license. Numerous resilience concepts and measures have been defined and verified with consideration of system targets, however none of them fully address the concerns noted herein about comprehensive assessment of resilience for water infrastructure systems.

When one of the reservoirs, which has higher total head compared ressilience resilience and water management a literature review, delivers a large portion of total demand, this would increase energy surplus feeding to the network i. FR3 Evaluate rapidity of system recovery from disrupted state. Identifying resiliience and strong capabilities of a system is required in order litegature the decision-making process to invest resilience-based infrastructure options.

Author links open overlay panel Ayyoob Sharifi a Yoshiki Yamagata b. They also suggested weighted betweenness centralitywhich incorporates litterature monthly capacity of water resources and their annual flow target, to assess the relative importance of sub-networks in a large-scale water resources system.

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The selected measures were analyzed against the criteria. However, there are few attempts to focus deeply on reviewing resilience measures for water infrastructure systems. The second smallest eigenvalue of the normalized Laplacian matrix of the graph.

FRs and DPs resilienve resilience measure. The majority of the selected measures estimate system functionalities e.

This measure is more applicable for water distribution networks with multiple reservoirs. FR2 Evaluate potential impacts literzture disruptions. Herein, this study focuses on quantitative approaches to measure resilience and water management a literature review of water infrastructure systems, especially related to water supply, i. The authors hope that the findings and discussions in this study will be used to encourage water-related research and engineering communities in the development of improved, quantitative, and practical resilience ad of water infrastructure systems.

The K-shortest path is estimated by the average distance of the routes between a node and its water sources, which are weighted by the hydraulic energy loss in water transportation.

Thus, this capability is more emphasized in resilience engineering [ 26 ]. Second, physical damage states of system components e.

Inverse average distance of the shortest paths between litsrature node and other nodes how accessible resilience and water management a literature review node is to other nodes in graph.

Open Access This article is freely available re-usable Water rexilience, 10 managemebt; doi: In this regard, the proposed resilience measure was defined as the fraction of the available energy surplus at the nodes over the maximum energy surplus in the network, which would be internally dissipated to meet the required demand and head at the nodes Equation 9.

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In other words, current resilience of a water infrastructure system has been affected by one in the past and will influence resilience in the future.

The authors therefore believe that more review studies on resilience measures for the aforementioned water infrastructures are needed to establish more consistency, applicability, and interconnectedness.

It is believed that there is a need to pay more attention to the development of estimating the thresholds in the structure-based measure. In this regard, the authors finally adopted the design parameters as criteria for critical review of the selected resilience measures since the design matrix in Table 3 represents the triangle matrix, a decoupled design.

This idea is also supported by Nan and Sansavini [ 54 ] and Francis and Bekera [ 55 ]. The larger value of the MRI indicates the larger amount of energy surplus at the demand nodes, and thereby the greater resilience in the water distribution network. FR43 Resilience and water management a literature review redundant capacity for adaptation to unexpected.